the relationship among two or more concepts. These relationships are usually
if-then relationships or cause-effect relationships. Other terms that
are used for principles are propositions, axioms, theorems, and postulates.
To make sure principle
learning takes place, teachers must ensure that students have prior knowledge
of the concepts that are being represented in the principle being taught.
Instructors can use
either the inquiry or expository approach to teach principles. An inquiry
approach to principle learning involves the instructor presenting learners
with examples and nonexamples of the principle and encouraging the learners
to discover the principle. An expository approach has the instructor presenting
and demonstrating the principle and the student practicing the principles
Here are some ways
that instruction events can be adapted when teaching principles.
the attention stage students should be directed to investigate the relationships
between key concepts of a principle.
an inquiry approach the purpose can be defined as a puzzle to solve
but it should be explicitly stated before the lesson is concluded. During
the expository approach the purpose is explicitly state.
and motivation can be promoted by using a puzzling situation. Learners
can also be shown experience that involve the principle or rule. Hearing
how the rule can be used to explain, predict, or control everday situations
can also be motivating.
the inquiry approach the lesson is previewed by giving students directions
to the solution of the puzzle as well as an overview of how the lesson
is going to progress. In the expository approach previewing a lesson
may involve an outline of how the lesson will allow the learners to
solve a puzzle or resolve a scenario that has been presented.
knowledge can be activated by having the students review the concepts
that are involved in the principle.
During the process of information students are either presented with
a statement of the principle and examples of the principle's application
or presented with examples of the principle's application and are asked
to come up with the principle.
the focus of attention, instructors need to help students determine
which concepts are being related by the principle and how they are related.
Students also need to be encouraged to focus on the features involved
in applying a principle.
is a strategy that can be used during the learning of a principle. A
mnemonic device can be used to help students remember the principle
statement. Techniques can also be taught to support the application
of a principle.
should practice principles at four levels. First they should practice
stating the principle. Next they should practice recognizing the situations
in which the principle is applicable. Then they should practice applying
the principle. Last, they should practice determining if the principle
has been correctly applied.
should provide feedback on each type of practice. They should evaluate
whether the learner has correctly stated the principle, is able to recognize
the situations in which the principle is applicable, whether they have
correctly applied the principle, and whether they are able to show that
they have correctly applied the principle.
the summary of a lesson instructors should restate the principle. They
may also want to present the principle in graphic format to show the
students the relationships among the concepts.
support the transfer of knowledge instructors should explain how the
principle could be applied later in combination with other principles.
They should also be encourage to find out how they can apply the principle
to their daily lives.
remotivate and close the lesson the students should be shown how the
principle's application is relevant to later instruction or their daily
of principle learning may include the following: stating the principle,
recognizing situations in which the principle is applicable, applying
the principle, and determing if the principle has been correctly applied.
should inform the learners whether or not they have acquired the ability
to apply the rule.
To show an example
of how a strategy to teach principle learning might be used. I have provided
a lesson that teaches a principle.
students will identify the relationship between temperature and pressure.
gain student attention and arouse interest tell the students that they
will be investigating the relationship between temperature and pressure.
establish the instructional purpose tell them that they will be conducting
an experiment to see how temperature and pressure affect each other.
process the information divide the students into small lab groups. Give
each group two 20 oz bottles of clear soda pop at room temperature,
two Celsius therometers, 2 Faherenheit therometers, and two rubber stoppers
that will fit into the bottle. Students should also have a data sheet
to record their findings. Then briefly explain the experiment. Tell
students that they will be shaking a half-full carbonated drink to increase
the pressure within the bottle. Tell the students that they will shake
it twice, four times, six times, and so on, recording the change in
temperature after every two shakes. Students will be performing this
experiment two times, first using a Celsius thermometer and a second
time using a Fahrenheit thermometer. They will be recording the data
on their data sheet, then creating graphs with the recorded data. Once
the students have create their graphs have them note how the temperature
changed when the pressure was increased and explain to them that pressure
generates heat and when pressure is increased then temperature is increased.
That the principle they have just learned is that when pressure is increased
the temperature increases.
practice the procedure have them apply the principle by varying the
start temperatures of the soda used.
summarize the lesson restate the principle and show the students how
they have proven that temperature and pressure are related.
support the transfer of information encourage the students to see if
the reverse is true. Have them experiment to see if increasing the temperature
of air, increases the pressure.
remotivate the lesson show the students that they can see the effects
of pressure on temperature in the weather and this principle can be
further be explored to see how temperature, pressure,and volume are
assess the students knowledge of the material have the students answer
discussion questions on temperature and pressure to make sure they understand
the principle and its application.
the worksheet to make sure they understand the principle and its application.