Home Page

Instructional Strategy

Declarative Knowledge

Concept Learning

Learning Procedures

Problem Solving

Principle Learning

Cognitive Strategy


Psychomotor Skill

A procedure is an established method of doing something. A procedure usually involves steps and can be either simple or complex. Simple procedures have a single set of linear steps. Complex procedures have many decision points. These are points through out the procedure where a learner has to decide which situations exist. Each decision leads to a different path or branch.

To learn procedures successfully students must know when to use the procedure, be able to recall the procedure, apply the steps of the procedure, and then confirm that they have correctly followed the procedure.

To support the learning of procedures teachers must make sure the procedure has been clearly written. They should also teach the procedure is the simplest manner possible.

Two strategies can be used to teach procedures:

Expository Strategy: This is the best approach for teaching procedures. During this approach teachers present the procedure and show how to apply it rather than having learners struggle to discover the procedure themselves.

Discovery Strategy: This strategy would be appropriate if on of the primary goals is for students to acquire skills in generating strategies hower this goal usually makes the task a problem solving task rather than one involving the application of procedure.

Here are some ways that instruction events can be adapted when teaching procedures.

1.              Introduction

  •    Attention can be gained by using asking the students questions or by showing them how using the procedure to solve a problem is more efficient than guessing at a solution.
  •    Instructional purpose is established by telling students the procedure they are going to learn and telling them how it can be applied.
  •    Expository lessons are previewed by having an explanation of what is going to be learned and how the lesson is going to proceed. Inquiry lessons preview the lesson by presenting the task they are going to have to accomplish.
  •    Learning procedures can be motivating because they allow learners to complete tasks more efficiently. Students can also be motivated to compare procedures they have developed to the procedures being taught.
  •    During the preview of the lesson the procedure should be previewed but it when teachers are doing this they need to make sure that students know that they do not need to know the entire procedure at this point.

     2.          Body

  •    Prior knowledge can be activated by having the student recognize the concepts necessary to recognizing when the procedure should be used and the concepts necessary for completing steps of the procedure.    
  •   During the process of information students should be taught to recognize when to use the procedure, how to complete its steps, to recall the steps of the procedure, and to check if the procedure has been applied properly. Students must also learn to make decisions with in the procedure.
  •    During the focus of attention, attention needs to be focused on features of a situation when the procedure is used, cues to indicate when a step should be done and when it has been done correctly, the sequence of the steps, and cures to indicate when the procedure has been done correctly.
  •    Mnemonics is a strategy that can be used during the learning of a procedure. A mnemonic device can be used to help students remember the steps of a procedure.
  •    During practice the each component of a procedure should be practice before moving on to the next component.
  •    Teachers should provide feedback on whether the learner knows to apply the procedure, whether the learner has completed each step accurately, whether the steps have been done in the correct order, and if the procedure has been done correctly.

 3.            Conclusion

  •    During the summary of a lesson instructors should review the type of situations where the procedure is applied. The form of the procedure should also be summarized and review.
  •    To remotivate and close instructors should remind the learner of the usefulness of the concept as well as its limitations.

  4.          Assessment

  •    To assess procedure learning instructors should determine if the student is able to apply the procedure across a variety of situations.
  •    Feedback should inform the learners whether or not specific component knowledge has been mastered.

To show an example of how a strategy to teach procedure learning might be used. I have provided a lesson that teaches a procedure.

The students will calculate scale using ratios.

  1.          Introduction

  •    To gain student attention and arouse interest use show the students a map of the United States and point out the scale located in the map key. Then tell the students that the map is a smaller scaled-down model of the United States. Then explain that sometimes things are to large to be represented on paper so we create a smaller model or sometimes we have to make small object larger.
  •    To establish the instructional purpose and preview the lesson tell the students that scales are used scales to measure the weight of an object, the temperature of air, the length of an object, and other things. Then point to the scale on the map and tell the students that scale is a ratio used to determine the size of a model of a real object and a ratio is a relationship between two objects in quantity, size, or amount. Then tell students that they are going to be using ratios to create a scale model of an object.

 2.         Body

  •    To process the information, focus attention, and review prior knowledge begin by drawing a square on the board whose sides are 10 cm. Then tell the students that you need to make the square smaller but you can't just cut it in half because you won't have a square any more. You need a way to reduce the size of the square without changing its shape. The tell the students that you want the square to be half the size of the ten cm square. Ask the students to tell you what half of ten is and then show them how a ratio of 5 to 10 equals 1/2. Then show the students the scale on the map and show them how 1 in. is equal to 50 miles. Then tell the students that they are going to be using the ratio .5 in=1 ft to find the scale model measurements of classroom objects. Then pick an object and go through the steps they are going to be following to find the measurements. Set up the ratio of .5in/1ft. Then measure the side of one object using feet. Then set up an equation of two ratios .5in/1ft=y/#of feet. measurement   Then show the students how to cross multiply to find their answer and to check and see if it is correct.
  •    To practice the procedure give the students a list of objects to measure and have them practice using ratios to find the measurements of a scale model

   3.                Conclusion

  •   To summarize and close the lesson go through the steps of the procedure again and show the students how using ratios is useful in creating smaller or larger models of objects.

4.                Assessment

  •     To assess the students knowledge of the material have the students complete a worksheet that has them use ratios to make objects larger or smaller.
  •     Evaluate the worksheet to make sure they have completed all the steps correctly and they have found the correct answers to each problem.