is the knowing of basic facts and the recall of stored information. Teachers
often use the words explain, describe, summarize and list when writing
declarative knowledge objectives. People go through three steps when
learning declarative knowledge:
Linking New Information to Existing Knowledge: To learn and recall
new information learners have to tie new knowledge to knowledge they all
ready possess. By linking new information to existing knowledge, learners
make the information more meaningful.
Organizing: Putting new information into groups also helps in the
learning of declarative knowledge. This placement of information also
involves placing it into different areas of the memory.
Elaborating: Making connections among the the information being
received as well as connecting new information to existing knowledge.
The conditions needed to support declarative knowledge learning are dependent
upon the instructional strategy tool being used. Organization strategies,
classification frames, concept mapping, advance organizers, metaphoric
techniques, rehearsal strategies, mnemonics, and imagery are all strategy
tools that can be used during a declarative knowledge lesson. Besides
these tools there are also techniques that should be used through out
the organization of a lesson.
Animated graphics, and conflicting/parodoxical events can be used to
gain attention and arouse interest.
establish purpose you can relate instructional goals to real life goals,
show how a previously used strategy can be used to learn knew material,
or just state the purpose directly.
organizers like expository and comparitive organizers can be used to
show how the information is going to be presented and to show the relationship
organizers, metaphoric devices, and review can be used to activate prior
techniques(mnemonics, images, and analogies), organizational techniques(graphic
and advance organizers), and elaborative techniques can be used for
the processing of information.
listing, and reflecting as well as the use of questions helps focus
elaboration strategies, imagery, analogy, organization, chunking, linking,
graphic organizers, and rehearsals are all learning strategies that
can be employed.
should involve paraphrased or verbatim recall. This recall should take
place over a period of time. The more exposure students have to new
material the more likely they are to remember it.
should evaluate whether the information given is complete and correct
if an error has been made the feedback should point out the error and
offer suggestions on how to fix the mistake.
summarize and review section can be student or teacher generated. Depending
on the objective, this section can be used to clarify material and make
sure the students are correctly assimilating the information or it can
be used to for practice and repetition.
ensure transfer connections between bits of material need to be established.
The more connections that are made the easier it is to recall information.
Inferences between new information and old information also have to
be made. If students can see how something they are learning relates
to something they have all ready learned it will make the information
more meaningful to them and increase recall.
remotivation and closure it is important to reemphasize the usefullness
of what is being learned. This can be done through rehearsal or elaboration.
involves being able to recall or recognize information in verbatim or
paraphrased form. Assessment tools should assess the learners ability
to remember the
To show an example
of how declarative knowledge strategies might be used. I have provided
a lesson with a declarative knowledge objective.
The students will describe a habitat.
students will identify the different habitats found on Earth.
The students will identify animals and plants that reside in the different
gain student attention and arouse interest tell the students about your
home and ask them to tell them about theirs. Anecdotes help gain attention
and arouse interest.
establish instructional purpose and use the direct approach and tell
the students that they are going to be working in groups to learn about
the homes of other animals.
preview the lesson have an outline showing the three areas that the
assignment will focus on: the description of the habitat, the regions
of the earth that this habitat is found, and the animals and plants
found in the habitat.
activate prior knowledge and process information create a web with the
students in class to identify the essential things that they need to
find out about the different habitats. Have students identify the things
they would like to learn about where an animal lives and have them tell
things that they would talk about if they were describing their own
redirect attention tell the students that they are going to be divided
into groups and each group will be making a diagram of an assigned habitat.
Then list the things that the students need to look for when they are
researching their habitat and identify the features that you want their
diagram to have.
practice what they have learned have them recall the things that make
up a habitat.
feedback by either informing students they are correct or by correcting
summarize and review have students tell what they have learned about
habitat and have them identify what they have to do for their assignment
and what things they need to look for and include when doing their assignment.
transfer have the students tell you how what they learn today relates
to what they all ready know and also ask them to tell you how they can
use the information they have learned in the future.
remotivate and close tell students how knowing about an animals habitat
can be useful in learning about the animal this reemphasizes the usefullness
of the new knowledge.
the students knowledge of the material by using the diagrams they create.
Use a rubric to determine if the diagram met the required expectations.
If the diagram contains animal life and vegetation known to that area
and depicts the accurate climate of the area the student has met the
the rubric to provide feedback to the students. Make comments on
how they could have improved their diagrams and what you enjoyed about